Singapore Section


  • 2020 AGM - Online for this year. Sept 17, 2020.

    Thursday, September 17, 2020, 06:00 PM - 07:00 PM MY
    Notice is hereby given that the Annual General Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, Singapore Section shall be held as follows: Date:  Thursday, September 17, 2020 Time:  6:00 pm to 6:40 pm  Venue:  Zoom meeting only  Agenda • Opening address by Section Chairperson • Confirmation of the Minutes of the 2019 AGM held on September 19, 2019. • Officer Nominations for the year to 2021 • Confirmation and Adoption of the Accounts for reporting financial year-end April 1, 2020 • Events update • Membership update • Any other business • To close the meeting To attend please see details below: Time: Sep 17, 2020 06:00 PM Singapore To join Zoom Meeting please email the secretary (PeterMark.Smith@bakerhughes.com) for the link. Passcode: 9VU1d2

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  • Online Distinguished Lecture: Techniques to Reduce Operating Costs for Increased Reserves and Profit

    Thursday, September 24, 2020, 06:00 PM - 07:00 PM MY
    Philip Hart 6:00 PM Thursday, September 24, 2020   Abstract:    Employing certain practices in past field operations reduced operating costs by over $4.4MM per year and helped increase reserves by more than 3 million barrels of oil (MMBO). These practices are broken into three main topics: Improving expense accounting accuracy and details Focusing on incremental individual operating costs to improve investment decisions Implementing innovative expense reduction techniques   The brief accounting overview concentrates on simplifying invoice coding, creating detailed equipment expenses, and developing more precise allocations. These improvements allow “troublesome” equipment to be identified and optimized, while providing improved financials.   The focus on determining individual operating costs allows shut-in wells to return to profitable production, pinpoints wells losing money, and improves the economics of workovers and new drill wells. Using this approach, one field increased reserves by more than 3 MMBO.   Lastly, nine operational techniques that reduced costs are reviewed in detail (and 10 more highlighted). These applications reduced pumping failures by 61% (saving $2.1MM/year), decreased energy costs by $1.3MM/year, and saved other expenses by $1.0MM/year.   With accurate detailed accounting, incremental individual well cost analysis, and cost cutting efforts, a field’s cash flow and reserves can be increased substantially.   Biography:    Philip Hart, as President of Excalibur Ventures, provides consultations to improve fields through  Reservoir and Operational Studies and also designs oilfield equipment for Omega Technologies in Houston, Tx. He started optimizing fields in 1978 as an Exxon Engineer, taught schools around the world, wrote SPE and SPWLA papers, and was President over companies that operated 2,300 wells. Working with innovative teams, Philip oversaw costs being reduced from $45MM to $25MM per year, while raising production from 13,500 to 19,000 BOPD and increasing valuations from $45MM to more than $300MM. Besides uncovering oilfield gems, he enjoys mission work and family time.  

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  • Online Distinguished Lecture: Kenneth Decker - Science vs The Art of Gas Lift Confirmation

    Thursday, January 21, 2021, 07:00 PM - 08:00 PM MY
    Please register here and email for meeting login Abstract: The gas lift design technique is the result of empirical evidence gathered at the wellhead.  Because the design technique is generally successful it is believed the theories of valve performance are also correct.  Flow testing of gas lift valves has provided more accurate performance models but those models have not been incorporated into the design technique. The annulus gas balance concept will be introduced and used to explain how tested valve performance models can be used to perform analysis on gas lift wells.  Data collected from an unconventional well be analyzed and compared to traditional analysis methods. Standard practice for gas lift was developed decades ago without the benefit of modern tools and test data.  We now have the tools and data to perform more accurate design and analysis.  We should begin to change ‘standard practice’ to reflect our new understanding of how gas lift works. Biography: Ken has spent his professional career working with Gas Lift and particularly the flow performance of gas lift valves.  That career has spanned 40 years working with Merla, Otis, and finally Decker Technology, Inc. He served as the chairman of the original API 11V2 RP document that defined how gas lift valves are to be tested.  The Valve Performance Clearinghouse (VPC) was created and administered by Ken for 17 years before being donated to Louisiana State University.  He has consulted on gas lift projects around the world, wrote computer programs to simulate and analyze gas lift wells, written numerous SPE papers, is a regular presenter for the Gas Lift Workshop, and was named an SPE Artificial Lift Legend in 2018.

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  • Alternatives to Radionuclide-based Well Logging Techniques- Are they real or just wishful thinking?

    Tuesday, February 23, 2021, 01:15 PM - 02:30 PM SGT
    Radionuclide-based logging tools critical for reservoir characterization and well placement, are still under scrutiny due to their continuing security and/or safety risks. Of concern are Am-Be source tools used for neutron porosity, zonal correlation and spectroscopy-to-mineralogy, and Cs-137 source tools used for density. Acoustic and NMR porosity techniques, and radiation generator-based density, porosity and mineralogy techniques have been tested by industry as alternatives, with mixed results. Novel Alt-tech concepts are being assessed. Simultaneously, tighter regulations have been promulgated, improved source-use protocols developed, and e-tags to monitor source movement are being field-tested. The talk first briefly reviews source use and risks. The four-component risk-mitigation approach noted is then discussed, with emphasis on Alternative Technologies. Requirements alternatives must meet to be replacement are examined, tested alternatives are mapped to these requirements, and novel concepts being assessed with the potential to allow a step change in well logging are described. The talk concludes by exploring two questions with the audience: Can the industry continue use of risky radioactive sources while searching for replacement technologies-if yes, how? If not, are alternatives wishful thinking? BIO: Ahmed Badruzzaman is a consultant to US Department of Energy (DOE) on mitigating risks of radionuclide-based well logging tools. His 37 years on down-hole nuclear techniques includes R&D at Chevron, Sandia National Laboratories, and Schlumberger-Doll, and teaching at University of California, Berkeley. He led USDOE’s 2015 Scoping Study on Alternatives and guided their 2016/2017 initiative on source security & alternatives in Central Asia and Ukraine. He is a primary industry discussant on the topic through his own research with a patent on n-gamma density as an alternative to Cs-137-based density, technical papers on other novel nuclear-based alternatives, leadership of SPWLA’s Nuclear Logging SIG, and commentary at various forums. He helped develop Chevron’s in-house Radioactive Source Handling Guideline, prepare IAEA’s draft logging source safety guide under review, and revise Vienna-based WINS’ Best Practice Guide on security of these sources. He was an official reviewer of US National Academy of Sciences’ 2008 report to Congress, “Radiation Source Use and Replacement.” Author of over 45 papers, two US patents, and an upcoming textbook on Nuclear Logging, Ahmed is a Fellow of American Nuclear Society, a past SPE Distinguished Lecturer, and a two-time SPWLA Distinguished Speaker. He holds PhD in Nuclear Engineering and Science from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

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  • What Does the Future Look Like for the Oil & Gas and Energy Sector – The Energy Transition

    Friday, March 5, 2021, 07:00 PM - 08:00 PM SGT
    Distinguished Lecture by Ian Phillips, Pale Blue Dot Energy Limited, Organised by the SPE Vietnam section who kindly allow us to join on the lecture. Abstract:   This presentation considers the future of the oil and gas industry from two perspectives. The first half paints a picture of an industry in extremely good health and with an exciting future - global population continues to grow and individuals' standard of living continues to rise - so demand for energy is growing steadily. Despite this growing demand, global proven reserves have risen as technology improves. In addition, we know where there is a lot more oil and gas in deposits that are currently uneconomic, but a small increase in the oil price would make these "proven reserves." In a nutshell, the industry might have a bright future. The second half presents the significant obstacle: summarizing the science of climate change and considering what happened when temperature rose this high in the past. The emerging alternatives, renewables, energy efficiency, and some dramatic scientific advances in "clean hydrocarbons," will also be reviewed. The presentation closes with an assessment of the impact of these competing forces on the oil and gas industry, the developed world, and the human race. Biography: Ian Phillips has over 30 years of experience in the upstream oil and gas industry with operators and service companies. In 2007 he became a founding Director of CO2DeepStore Limited - now Pale Blue Dot Energy Limited - the first company specifically seeking to deliver CCS as a service. He holds an M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering from Heriot Watt University and an MBA. He is also a Fellow of the UK Energy Institute and is a Chartered Petroleum Engineer. He recently completed 4 years as chair of the SPE Aberdeen Section and was previously North Sea Regional Director on the SPEI Board. He is an SPE Distinguished Member. Join   Zoom   Meeting https://us02web. zoom .us/j/4998052642?pwd=QkVYM0hzU2tuTEFqZ0xuMjdZTDVKUT09   Meeting ID: 499 805 2642 Passcode: 1234

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  • Innovation Themes for Oil and Gas Exploration

    Tuesday, March 30, 2021, 06:00 PM - 09:00 PM SGT
    Innovation Themes for Oil & Gas Exploration “a 44 year perspective” Abstract:   Innovation in S E Asia Oil & Gas Exploration and Exploitation has been driven by necessity - product prices fluctuated and profit margins had to be maximized in order to survive and provide “share holder” returns. New technologies, ideas, and processes all need to be both mastered then applied in order to stay viable.  Data was and still is the key; but how it is compiled, processed and interpreted keeps evolving, forever reducing the time needed and levels of uncertainty to help deliver profits. This talk will try to demonstrate how much has changed for the better over the last 40 years and will most assuredly will continue to do so over the next!  Bio:   Ian Collins is well known in the Singapore SPE section. He is now retired, after having served as Petroleum Geologist - Explorationist, New Ventures & Business Development specialist & advisor.  44 years of worldwide experience: including 19 years with US Independent UNOCAL; 3 years with Thailand State Oil Company PTTEP; 5 years with UK independent Serica Energy; 4 years with Malaysian conglomerate Genting Oil & Gas; and a year with Murphy Oil. Earlier years spent as Wellsite geologist & mudlogger, with final working years at Polarcus trying to use MC3D seismic to gain Equity at the worst possible time.  AAPG certified Petroleum Geologist, Fellow of the Geol Soc London; Active member of: AAPG, SPE, PESGB, Geol Soc Malaysia and SEAPEX ( past President twice) - now lapsed AIPN PAYMENT: Please note that PayPal is no longer available. You can  now  either  pay  cash or credit card at the door, or  pay  ahead using  Paynow . Reminder that you get a 10% discount for early bird fees. Paynow number: 8874 2334 (note: new number!) Student: S$27, Members: S$45, Non-Members: S$67.5 Pay  at the door prices: Student: S$30, Members: S$50, Non-Members: S$75 Includes 3-course dinner and 2 drinks. Please include your  SPE  member ID for Students and Members, and your name in the message to the Payee. The early bird discount is valid only until midnight 2 days before the event. Don't forget to keep the screenshot of your transaction as a proof at the door.

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    Singapore, Singapore

  • Virtual DL - Digital Transformation of Reservoir Management with Artificial Intelligence and Machine

    Wednesday, April 28, 2021, 09:00 AM - 10:30 AM MY
    Microsoft Teams meeting Join on your computer or mobile app Click here to join the meeting Join with a video conferencing device 135832655@psc.petronas.com.my Video Conference ID:   134 026 500 2 Alternate VTC dialing instructions Or call in (audio only) +60 3-9212 5341,,167777561#     Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur Phone Conference ID:   167 777 561# Find a local number   |   Reset PIN Learn More   |   Meeting options Subsurface Analytics; Digital Transformation of Reservoir Management with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Petroleum data analytics (PDA) is the application of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in the oil and gas industry. The future of our industry will be highly influenced by PDA. Engineering-domain experts who become highly skilled AI and ML practitioners are the ones who will control the future of engineering disciplines, including petroleum engineering. Becoming an engineering-related AI and ML expert practitioner requires fundamental understanding and extensive experience using AI and ML to solve engineering-related problems. The objective of this weeklong PDA series is to provide the required and realistic foundations to the new generation of petroleum professionals that has recognized the potential of AI and ML in the industry. Clearly, short courses will not cover or provide all that is necessary for petroleum professionals to become true PDA experts. However, a week such as this will play a crucial role for the enthusiast of this technology in identifying the scientific realities associated with the foundation of AI and ML and its true application in PDA. Petroleum Data Analytics PDA experts are expected to be able to use AI and ML to solve petroleum-engineering-related problems in ways that are different from how such problems have been addressed in the past 70 years in our industry. The difference has to do with avoiding assumptions and simplifications that have played a significant role in addressing most of the traditional petroleum-engineering solutions. Traditional engineering approaches to problem solving in our industry incorporate simplified mathematical equations that are overwhelmed by assumptions in order to model highly complex physical phenomenon that is not directly observable. Continuing to use such traditional approaches and combining them with AI and ML algorithms (hybrid models) minimizes the contribution of this highly capable technology to engineering problem solving. While some approaches of such combinations may help the conventional methods to work better; faster; and, in some cases, even easier, this is not the way AI and ML can contribute to the industry. The application of such hybrid approaches to completion and production optimization of shale wells is a good example. Using the traditional methods as the foundation of achieving such objectives removes the science and the reality from modeling and analyses of hydrocarbon production from shale plays. Then, using AI and ML to contribute to such hybrid approaches only makes the separation of science and reality from modeling and analysis easier and faster to accomplish. This is not only a comment and an assumption; it is based on actual work that we did and proved to be achievable. Another example of such combination is the enhancement of traditional decline curve analysis through the inclusion of physics. This would be a better example, but it is still a combinatorial (hybrid) approach and should not be referred to as AI and ML. PDA incorporates AI and ML to solve highly complex petroleum-engineering-related problems by avoiding traditional methods, not by combining them. Realistic, scientific, and purely data-driven analysis and modeling to represent the complex physics of the phenomena is the way AI and ML must be used in the context of PDA. This requires that PDA experts have three characteristics: Domain expertise Expertise in practicing AI and ML Realistic understanding of AI and ML Domain Expertise PDA experts must have domain expertise in the specific areas of petroleum engineering that they are addressed using AI and ML. Examples of such domain expertise are being drilling expert, a completion expert, a reservoir-engineering expert, a reservoir-modeling expert, a reservoir-management expert, a surveillance expert, a production expert, or a surface facility expert. Lack of domain expertise takes us back to the initial application of this technology in our industry by some operating and service companies. They brought in experts of AI and ML from Silicon Valley and spent large amounts of resources. A waste of time and resources was the main outcome. Expertise in Practicing AI and ML PDA experts must develop expertise in solving and addressing petroleum-engineering-related problems through purely data-driven AI and ML approaches. Understanding the mathematics behind the ML algorithms or having the capabilities to code such algorithms does not turn petroleum-engineering professionals into PDA experts. While understanding the mathematics behind the ML algorithms is an absolute requirement, and being able to use Python to code such algorithms is a useful capability, at least within the next few years, they are not enough to turn petroleum engineers into expert practitioners of the application of AI and ML in engineering-related problems. This must be made very easy to digest. All one needs to do is to ask oneself the following question: Is a fresh petroleum engineering graduate with a bachelor’s degree a reservoir-engineering expert? Such individuals have taken about 6 to 18 credit hours of courses that are somehow related to reservoir engineering in the last 2 years of their education. Nevertheless, once they start to work as a reservoir engineer for an operating or service company, they will go through a series of training to be exposed to the realities associated with the nature of and fluid flow through porous media. The reservoir-engineering experts usually are those with many years of field experience, not just a few courses in academia. The same is true for PDA. PDA experts require actual practices of application of AI and ML in the areas in which they have domain expertise. This takes a lot of time and may require many vicissitudes. It will never happen in a couple of months or a couple of years. We need to be realistic about the application of AI and ML for engineering-related problem solving. A lack of expertise in the application of AI and ML by domain experts currently is being experienced by some operating and service companies. When some petroleum professionals who have been exposed to AI and ML technology for a couple of years have applied this technology to a few problems, some of these applications end up being unsuccessful. They then move toward “hybrid models,” which means back to traditional engineering approaches in order to get the AI and ML to provide reasonable results. This is just as bad as the lack of domain expertise when AI and ML experts from Silicon Valley were used solve petroleum-engineering-related problems. Realistic Understanding of AI and ML Fig. 1— Contribution of other sciences to AI and ML. Having some fundamental knowledge of AI and ML is incredibly attractive and can end up being highly addictive (once one becomes involved in it in a realistic manner, moving away from it can be very difficult). AI and ML is a complete paradigm shift in science and technology. As one becomes interested in learning more about this technology, one may become very interested in biology, neuroscience, evolution, philosophy, statistics, mathematics, and computer science   (Fig. 1).   Developing such a deep understanding of this paradigm shift is not necessary to become an expert engineering practitioner of this technology, but a certain amount of such understanding is required so that one does not mix this technology with traditional approaches to engineering problem solving. The more of this understanding that one develops, the more one becomes interested in researching this topic and developing new approaches to engineering problem solving. Among the three major characteristics listed, domain expertise is the most important, followed by expertise in a large number of realistic practices of AI and ML algorithms. Major knowledge and expertise in the foundation of the AI and ML contributes significantly to becoming a research scientist in PDA. However, it is not necessarily a requirement for being a PDA expert. Nonetheless, the fact remains that knowledge of the foundation of AI and ML will be a characteristic of PDA experts, once they increase their interest in the topic. Shahab D. Mohaghegh,  a pioneer in the application of artificial intelligence and machine learning in the exploration and production industry, is professor of petroleum and natural gas engineering at West Virginia University and the president and CEO of Intelligent Solutions. He holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in petroleum and natural gas engineering.   Mohaghegh has authored three books ( Shale Analytics ,  Data Driven Reservoir Modeling , and  Application of Data-Driven Analytics for the Geological Storage of CO 2 ) and more than 170 technical papers and has carried out more than 60 projects for independents, national oil companies, and international oil companies. He is an SPE Distinguished Lecturer (2007–08) and has been featured four times as the Distinguished Author in SPE’s  Journal of Petroleum Technology  (2000–04). Mohaghegh is the founder of Petroleum Data-Driven Analytics, SPE’s Technical Section dedicated to artificial intelligence and machine learning. He has been honored by the US Secretary of Energy for his AI-related technical contribution in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico and was a member of US Secretary of Energy’s Technical Advisory Committee on Unconventional Resources in two administrations (2008–14). Mohaghegh represented the United States in the International Standard Organization in Carbon Capture and Storage (2014–16). https://higherlogicdownload.s3.amazonaws.com/SPE/25d8cf08-c198-41b3-8dcb-93df97d05996/UploadedImages/Conferencias_distinguidas/6-LD_Shahab_Mohaghegh.pdf

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  • Site Visit - 3D printing technologies for Oil and Gas

    Thursday, May 6, 2021, 11:30 AM - 01:45 PM SGT
    The oil and gas industry is going through a major change – with a drive for a more optimised, local, lean and green supply chain Additive Manufacturing (AM) is poised to become an alternative to some of the incumbent casting or forging approaches that have been adopted. Additive Manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing encompasses a wide range of technologies and materials. The presentation and showcase features a wide spread of AM technologies, unique designs, metal and plastic materials as well as an understanding of how AM can be integrated to form a more distributed and digital manufacturing supply chain. An overview on some of the common items printed, standards adopted and best applications for the technology will be showcased along with a visit to 3D Metalforge’s Additive Manufacturing Centre.  Introduction to Additive Manufacturing – the fundamentals  The Digital Supply Chain / Warehouse Certifications and Industry Standards Metal Materials available  / Properties Applications / Parts printed in Metal Plastic Materials available  / Properties Applications / Parts printed in Plastic Tour of AMC PPE: Closed shoes is mandatory, Eye protection Register your interest by sending you email, job title, company, and phone number.

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    Singapore, Singapore

  • Virtual DL - Is There A Future For Oil & Gas In A Net Zero World?

    Thursday, May 20, 2021, 12:00 PM - 01:30 PM MY
    Topic: Virtual DL - Is There A Future For Oil & Gas In A Net Zero World? Time: May 20, 2021 12:00 PM Singapore Join Zoom Meeting https://us02web.zoom.us/j/4998052642?pwd=QkVYM0hzU2tuTEFqZ0xuMjdZTDVKUT09 Meeting ID: 499 805 2642 Passcode: 1234 SPE Gaia Talk | Sustainability Abstract: Our industry is facing mounting pressure from all sides to decarbonize.  Regulations are getting tougher in response to public pressure and investors are pulling capital out of the oil and gas industry over concerns that assets may be left in the ground stranded. Natural gas has been touted as the transition fuel to net zero. However, because of the methane emitted in the production and distribution process, some believe that it is dirtier than coal and cannot play this role. We have to act now or our industry will be viewed adversely and collectively we will make poor energy decisions for our planet. Technology that is able to detect and measure methane emissions is showing that we have a problem along our entire exploration, production, processing and distribution chain. According to the World Bank Global Gas Flaring Reduction group, every day over 14.5 billion standard cubic feet of gas is vented and flared globally. In addition to being a monumental waste of energy, this practice releases methane, VOC’s, PAH’s, particulates and other harmful pollutants into our atmosphere impacting air quality, human health and contributing to climate change. Methane is 86 times worse that carbon dioxide over a thirty-year time frame which means that eliminating these fugitive emissions is one of the biggest opportunities to cost effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions providing an immediate impact in a short time frame.  Can we act, do we have time to change the narrative and can we create a great future for all? What will it take? Speaker Bio: Audrey Mascarenhas   is President and CEO of   Questor Technology Inc.   (Questor) a public, international company focused on clean air and energy efficiency technology.   Audrey has worked in energy and environment for over 39 years with   Gulf Canada Resources Ltd ., presently Conoco-Phillips   and Questor .  Through her leadership, she has focused on technology solutions to eliminate methane and harmful pollutants. Audrey shares her passion for the environment and served as a distinguished lecturer with the   Society of   Petroleum Engineers   (SPE) in 2010-2011. She is a graduate of the University of Toronto with a Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering and holds a Masters Degree in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Calgary.  She is a fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineers. Audrey was the recipient of the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year 2011 Prairies Award for Cleantech and Environmental Services and received a national citation for Values-Based Innovation. Audrey currently serves as an expert on the Circular Economic Panel advising Environment Canada, the Lazaridis Institute global advisory and the Schulich Industry Engineering Advisory Council.  She chaired the Canadian Federal Government Clean Technology Economic Strategy table and was an Energy Futures Lab fellow.

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  • POSTPONED - Carbon Pricing, Trading and Valuations for Engineers

    Thursday, August 19, 2021, 06:00 PM - 09:00 PM MY
    Vinod Kesava is the Co-Founder/CEO of Climate Resources Exchange International Pte Ltd Vinod is a carbon markets entrepreneur with almost 20 years of hands-on in the global carbon markets working on: renewable energy, chemical processes, nature-based solutions, energy efficiency & Integrative Design projects. He is Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Climate Resources Exchange International Pte Ltd (CRX) and CRX CarbonBank Pte Ltd, both headquartered in Singapore Since 2003, he has been instrumental in designing and executing practical climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies for SMEs, MNCs and cities. Vinod is a prominent international speaker on carbon pricing frameworks and climate change initiatives globally. He has delivered keynote speeches, white papers and participated in high-level panels in the European Union, North America and Singapore and Asia (with a specific focus on ASEAN) Vinod’s deep-domain knowledge of emission reduction opportunities over a plethora of industries ensure that he provides a holistic, strategic and efficient approach for all clients, supporting their efforts towards resilience. In 2020, Vinod successfully transacted the sale of a CDM Program of Activities to a Korean and Dutch that he had invented in 2019. In February 2021, Vinod successfully registered the 1st CDM Program of Activities for ASEAN to generate carbon assets from Solar PV in the region for Sunseap Group Pte Ltd. He continues to innovate and in March 2021, has set up the 1st Program to generate carbon assets from Electric & Hybrid Vehicles. Entry i ncludes 3-course dinner and 2 drinks. The talk occurs in a dedicated room with attendance masked and as per Singapore rules for lectures. The dinner occurs afterwards in the Mason's Table restaurant in tables of 8Pax max. PAYMENT: Please note that PayPal is no longer available. You can  now  either  pay  cash or credit card at the door, or  pay  ahead using  Paynow . Reminder that you get a 10% discount for early bird fees. Paynow  number: 8874 2334  (note: new number!) Student: S$27, Members: S$45, Non-Members: S$67.5 Pay  at the door prices: Student: S$30, Members: S$50, Non-Members: S$75 Please include your  SPE  member ID for Students and Members, and your name in the message to the Payee. The early bird discount is valid only until midnight 2 days before the event. Don't forget to keep the screenshot of your transaction as a proof at the door.

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    Singapore, Singapore